Bibliography and Resources

Becoming Minnesotan: Recent Immigrants and Refugees, Minnesota Historical Society,

Cha, Ya Po. An Introduction to Hmong Culture. Jefferson, NC:  McFarland & Company, Inc., 2010.

Chan, Sucheng, ed. Hmong Means Free: Life in Laos and America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York:  Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.

Faruque, Cathleen Jo. Migration of Hmong to the United States. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2002.

Hein, Jeremy, Ethnic Origins: The Adaptation of Cambodian and Hmong Refugees in Four American Cities (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2006).
Her, Vincent K., and Mary Louise Buley-Meissner, Hmong and American: From Refugees to Citizens (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2012).

Hillmer, Paul. A People’s History of the Hmong. St. Paul:  Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2010.

Hmong Studies Internet Resource Center:Links to bibliographies, census info, and scholarly sources. Links to issues of the Hmong Studies Journal. 

Hmongism Temple,

Kansier, Chris. The Hmong in St. Paul:  A Culture in Transition. St. Paul: Community Planning Organization, 1980.

Lee, G. Y. and Nicholas Tapp Culture and Customs of the Hmong (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2010). 

Moua, Vayong. “Hmong Christianity: Conversion, Consequence, and Conflict.” Hmong Electronic Resources Project. 1995.

Vang, Chia Youyee. Hmong in Minnesota. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2008.

Xiong, Phua, Charles Numrich, WuChu Yongyuan, Deu Yang, and Gregory Plotnikoff, “Hmong Shamanism” in Religion and Healing in America, ed. Linda Barnes and Susan S. Sered. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Check out the exhibit on the First Hmong Assembly of God Church for Hmong who have adopted Christianity.